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Here's one I did earlier on Motivation (and it is VERY long!)

Up until about 100 years ago, the word ‘motivation’ did not really appear either in literature or even in the Industrial Revolution management lexicon. In fact, even as recently as 70 years ago motivation was generally considered something that one person does to another. It was only then that people really began to analyse and understand motivation and now it is understood as being the internal drive which makes the individual take some kind of action. In fact to take it one step further, nowadays motivation is considered to be a form of stimulation to satisfy a need – either physiological or psychological.


However, in spite of all the research, there is still a lot of misunderstanding about the phenomenon of motivation and as you are probably aware a whole industry has grown out of the concept.

For instance, an individual may go and listen to a very good speaker and believe that they have been motivated. In actual fact what they are really feeling is what can only be described as a 'feelgood factor', which, in keeping with most similar psychological effects carries with it a certain amount of exponential decay. That means that in a few days or weeks that individual will revert to exactly how they were before he or she was subjected to that speakers fine words.


Motivation contains an element of behavioural change. It is the feeling of commitment to doing something well and being prepared to put energy into it.


It varies in nature and intensity from individual to individual, depending on the particular mixture of influence on him or her at any given moment. These influences are related to a person’s needs.


Douglas MacGregor: Theory X and Theory Y.


When the Pyramids were built by hundreds of thousands of slaves, there was little talk of motivation. Everything was achieved through coercion.


Surprisingly, this attitude, especially to working subordinates persisted for the next few thousand years.


The theory was that people would work because they had to, and that they did it for money. The concept of job satisfaction or feeling motivated to do a good job was totally off the radar.


In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor formulated two very contrasting theories of management which identified the evolution of motivational thought.


His Theory X assumes that the individual is only interested in himself. In other words, he is individual-goal oriented. That means that he or she does not want anything to do with responsibilities, has no ambition and only works because he has to. This theory also assumes that employees are lazier and less intelligent than the managerial classes. That in turn creates its own managerial style because all of the above assumptions would seem to mean that the individual will not perform unless he is totally controlled by the manager because of the key assumption that the employee is not particularly interested in the work and will do as little as possible in order to be rewarded.


His Theory Y is the complete antithesis of the old-school Theory X and assumes that employees can be internally motivated, wish to derive job satisfaction, can enjoy the work and do not just work for the reward. That creates a different management style……..one which is more hands-off because employees with that sort of attitude are certainly not in need of constant supervision because they take a pride in their work and can be challenged to perform better, without necessarily either being bullied or offered more reward.


Surprisingly, we still have many Theory X managers around!


Why motivate?


Motivation should not be regarded as some sort of trick or technique but a normal part of life – and not just in the workplace.


For instance, giving a child responsibility at a very early age is highly motivational to that child and its psychological development. The same applies to adults.


Many years ago I was challenged to motivate somebody who was considered to be totally lacking in motivation and as the management of a particular company said to me, he did not physically need any motivation to carry out his job properly. He was a lavatory attendant.


This particular individual was famous for being late for work or phoning in sick - which the management hadn't realised was no more than a sign of a demotivated worker.


His job was to keep the toilets clean, replace the towel roll on the wall when it ran out and replace toilet rolls.

Every time he needed toilet rolls or towels he would go to the premises manager who would sign off a request and he would be handed the towels or the toilet rolls.


I suggested the following changes:

The lavatory attendant should have a new job description which gave him total responsibility for deciding when and how his disinfectants, mops, toilet rolls, towels etc should be ordered.

If outside cleaners were ever used, it would be his responsibility to inspect their work and sign it off. In addition, he had a certain amount of money made available to him every month which he was given the responsibility to spend. It wasn't a large amount, but it was his responsibility and he no longer had to go cap in hand to the premises manager.


The change in this man was nothing short of spectacular. The mere fact that the company was telling him that he was a trusted employee with responsibility for his job motivated him to the extent that his attendance record was soon 100% and he was no longer sick every other week.

The most powerful form of motivation is to challenge people and to make them feel wanted and important.


The Hawthorne Effect.


I shall paraphrase the Hawthorne Effect for you, but it is one of the most well-known experiments in industrial history and it was all about trying to ascertain not how an individual’s performance could be manipulated but it was all about attempting to establish that industrial productivity could be affected by a group’s surroundings.

Sometimes the Hawthorne Experiment is known as the Western Electric Experiment because that is where the study was held.


In the experiment, production line working conditions were initially varied by increasing the light level and, surprisingly this resulted in productivity going up quite substantially. In fact, when the light levels were increased further, the productivity increased yet again.


Then the light levels were decreased and something quite unexpected happened. Instead of the productivity returning to the lower levels it increased even further!


The conclusion drawn from the experiments (and remember, I have paraphrased what actually happened), was that productivity was not necessarily affected by surroundings as much as by the fact that someone was caring about and paying attention to the workers and their place of work.

Several other concepts were drawn from the experiment - the main one being that merely ‘showing an interest’ can be a very powerful motivator.


‘No-No’ conditioning.


Let's go back to the beginning.

When we are very young we do not know about motivation. Assuming that our upbringing is reasonable, we do not worry or even begin to think about negativity, but for many of us, negativity is gradually introduced into our psyche by the grown-ups around us. I call this 'No-No’ conditioning.


Have you ever observed a young couple with a child and how often they say the word 'NO!'? They say it to the child for a variety of reasons and most of them are well meant. For instance, they don't want the child to injure him or herself. So if a child picks up say, a knife or other dangerous object, it is the normal reaction for the parents who wish to protect the child to say 'No... Put that down!'


The child may pick up an expensive glass vase or other valuable object and as there is a very good chance of it being dropped, once again 'No!'

A child is constantly told what it cannot do rather than do what it can do. That is 'No-No’ conditioning ...... and it creates demotivated adults.


The complete antithesis of ‘No-No’ conditioning is found in something so simple that it tends to escape most people's thinking and that is parents with young children who give a child the occasional pat on the head as well as a compliment.


Imagine this scenario: you are sitting at home at the kitchen table, reading a newspaper and suddenly there's a tug on your shirtsleeve. Your five-year-old presents you with a large piece of paper covered in wet paint with a painted outline of a house with a chimney and a sun with some badly painted figures which could be people but you're not sure. What do you say to that child? "Look at that, isn't that good? Is that me and mummy?" 


The child smiles and nods and leaves you with the painting which you place on the kitchen table and carry on reading. 


In about five minutes you feel another tug on your shirtsleeve and there's another painting, although this time it looks a bit abstract, because it was done in such a hurry. 


Any idea why your child has rushed off and created another masterpiece for you? It's because of the nice words and the smile which you shared with them.

When we become adults we are no different.


If you want to motivate someone around you, whether they work for you or whether they are family, all you need to do is appreciate them, but not only that. You need to tell them that you appreciate them for what they are and for what they do. 


You will be surprised what a strong motivator that is.


If you don't believe me, think back and I bet you remember every single compliment that you have ever been paid in your life, right down to your childhood. I have met some people who even remember being complimented as a four or five-year-old when a grown-up once told them that they looked nice in their new clothes!


That is how powerful positive conditioning is and that is how powerful 'No-No' conditioning can be.


Self-esteem. Status, Real and Imagined.


You probably know at least one person who defies that psychological gravity and is always 'up'. That sort of person is said to be self-motivated and appears to be cheerful and happy no matter what life throws at them.


Then there are the normal people like you and me who go through a whole range of internal feelings from the very motivated to the very depressed - we are the normal ones!


But what makes some people highly motivated and others needing an external 'fix' of motivation?


When we interact socially, whether at a dinner, a dance, visit to the theatre etc we spend a lot of time preparing ourselves. 


We like to look good and we like to look successful. Why?


It is all to do with our self-esteem and status or should I say, imagined status in many cases.


If you're the sort of person who has a nice car and is still stopping at traffic lights and admiring yourself in shop windows you are trying to boost your self-esteem. You believe that others will see you exactly as you see yourself. In order to feel motivated and positive and confident you need to feed your ego and by doing that you build your own self-esteem.


A lot of marketing activity is about telling people how motivated and good about themselves they will feel when they purchase a particular product. It's all to do with self-esteem and perceived status.


That is why we all exaggerate our responsibilities in the workplace to outsiders, and that is why when we complete a CV we are all successful motivated go-getters! It's all to do with motivation and self-esteem.


In a later chapter we are going to discuss the move from self-esteem to esteem in the eyes of others , with the final stage of feeling so highly motivated and confident that we don't really need to have a esteem from others because we know (not suspect but KNOW!) how good we are!


Incidentally, this may be a good point to mention the vast industry of audiofiles, CDs, courses and books on building self-esteem and motivation. Judging by the sheer volumes of this sort of material that has been sold over the years, everyone in the world should be highly motivated and superconfident.


Unfortunately, all the books, videos, etc do nothing more than temporarily mask normal behaviour and the real secret is not in masking behaviour, but in achieving actual change.


Empowerment as a motivator. 


The example I gave you above about the lavatory attendant being given a set of new responsibilities was really about empowerment and so improving your home life as well as your professional life. It is one of the more powerful motivators.


If we agree that in order to get the best out of someone it is important to make them feel valued then one of the great shortcuts is to make them feel empowered. That can be achieved so easily by merely giving responsibility or simply something to do. 


Encouraging self-reliance is also a great motivator.


Empowerment is certainly not about abdication and it is not simply about delegation. It is about allowing people to get on with their work or activities and allowing them to take responsibility and allowing them to take decisions which they feel are the right ones. It also means stripping away any unnecessary bureaucracy and control. It also means listening to people's ideas.


If you want commitment and motivation from people as they take ownership of any issues plus they generate their own solutions, empowerment can be very powerful, with the added advantage of building trust.

  

Abraham Maslow: Motivation and Needs.


It was as late as 1942 that Abraham Maslow outlined the elements of his overall theory of human motivation. 

His work was based on a series of core beliefs about the nature of human behaviour:


1. People are wanting animals. As soon as one of man's needs are satisfied, another will appear in its place. This process is never-ending and continues from birth to death.


2. Satisfied needs do not motivate or cause behaviour. Only an unsatisfied need can make human beings act. For instance, a starving person can be made to do things for the promise of food, but food will not motivate a person who is in the middle of the third day of a Roman banquet. Air does not motivate people until there isn't enough. Only those needs that have not been satisfied can exercise a great deal of influence over human beings.


3. The needs of a man can be thought of as arranged in a hierarchy of importance. An individual has a predetermined order of needs, each need having its own rank and level of importance to each individual.

Maslow classified the needs in five distinct levels:


Primary needs: Physiological needs, safety needs

The most basic of all human needs is the physiological need to survive. They need to have enough air, food and water to keep the biological processes functioning. 


In an affluent society these needs are usually met, but they must continue to be met repeatedly within relatively short periods of time if they are going to remain fulfilled. If they are unfulfilled, they will take precedence over all other needs. 


Deprive a person of food, sleep, air or any of the basic physiological needs and quite quickly all other concerns become unimportant. All attention is focused on satisfying that unfulfilled need.


Safety needs, just like physiological needs are basic. Once we have found enough air, food and water, we seek shelter and the feeling of security. Human beings satisfy their safety needs in many ways: working long hours for economic security, showing a preference for things that are familiar rather the new and different, striving to maintain an orderly and predictable life rather than a life of uncertainty in randomness. 


An individual's feeling of safety is threatened when he is dependent on someone else for security. Almost every employee is dependent on the organisation for pay and therefore survival. Consequently, decisions of management that are arbitrary or capricious, violate one of the strongest and most basic of human needs.


Secondary needs: Social needs, esteem needs, self-actualisation


Social needs and the other secondary needs become important motivators, but after the physiological and safety needs are satisfied. 


The first of the secondary needs is the social need to belong, to be loved, and to be accepted. When deprived of the need for love and social relationships, most of us feel that deprivation as intensely as the starving man who wants food. Yet some managers go to great lengths to oppose the natural groupings of employees assuming that an informal group always threatens the organisation and that it should be broken up. The manager thus causes the workers to focus their energies on satisfying this need. 


Our social needs are also exemplified by our almost pathological need to gather in groups, whether it is attendance at a football match, a church service or even a visit to the theatre, we are satisfying a very basic social need.


Esteem needs are no more than our psychological desire for recognition, status and achievement. We are motivated by our desire for our esteem needs. Maslow classifies to two types of esteem needs: the need to have others think highly of you and the need for high self-esteem. Self-esteem includes self-confidence, knowledge and a sense of independence. The ‘esteem in the eyes of others’ includes an individual's reputation, status, recognition and respect.


People are concerned about earning achievement and prestige and a failure to satisfy these needs can lead to feelings of helplessness, weakness and inferiority. These in turn can lead to a sense of discouragement, passivity and apathy. Maslow argues that people are not born apathetic, but an inability to meet esteem needs can make them so.

Self-actualisation is the state of being satisfied with oneself in the accomplishment and attainment of most of one's goals. Maslow does not define this highest level, specifically, but only indicates that a self-actualised person believes he or she has realised all of his or her potential.


Motivation and management: Frederick Hertzberg:

AKA ‘Two-factor Theory’ (motivators and hygiene factors)


Psychologist Frederick Hertzberg related Maslow's theory to the dynamics of job satisfaction. Hertzberg was interested in the importance that work and working conditions had in the lives of normal working people.

His research revealed 14 sub-factors which were important to an individual's working conditions:


They were recognition, achievement, possibility of growth, advancement, salary, interpersonal relations, technical supervision, responsibility, company policy and administration, working conditions, the work itself, factors in personal life, status, and job security.


Hertzberg concluded that the factors involved in producing job satisfaction were separate and distinct from the factors that led to job dissatisfaction.

Out of the original 14 factors, 

Hertzberg categorised the variables directly related to motivation and those not directly related, which he called hygiene factors.


The motivators were: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement.


The hygiene factors were company policy, pay, working conditions, supervision, benefits.


Looking at the above list, it meant simply that the hygiene factors were not particularly motivators but if there was any deficiency in any of the hygiene factors they could be the biggest demotivators.


Hertzberg saw motivators as those variables that produced good feelings about work and therefore improved attitude or performance.


Hygiene factors were those variables that acted only to prevent loss of morale and productivity. Hygiene factors are prerequisites for effective motivation, but they are powerless to motivate by themselves.


In fact, Hertzberg's hygiene factors are similar to Maslow's lower level needs. Like primary needs, hygiene factors can be satisfied but after a certain point cannot motivate. The motivators, on the other hand, obviously relate to Maslow's higher needs. These needs are more complex, less easy to satisfy and they must be continually reinforced.


'You cannot motivate an individual with a bottle of champagne if he or she is hungry.'


Studs Terkel: e.g. “Work is about a search for daily meaning as well as daily bread, for recognition as well as cash, for astonishment rather than torpor; in short, for a sort of life rather than a Monday through Friday sort of dying.”


Studs Terkel was an American polymath in that he was an Author, Historian, Radio Personality, Actor and Pulitzer Prize winner. One of his great interests was the condition of the working man and why so many still spend their lives totally demotivated doing what Terkel termed 'work without meaning'.


Rather eloquently, Terkel sums up both Maslow's and Hertzberg's ideas. Here's a quote which encapsulates all of that:

'To write about work, is by the very nature of the subject to write about violence-to the spirit as well as to the body. It is about ulcers as well as accidents, about shouting matches, as well as fistfights, about Nevis breakdowns and kicking the dog around. It is, above all about daily humiliations........ to survive the day is triumph enough for the walking wounded among the great many others........... There are, of course, the happy few who find satisfaction in their daily job. The stonemason who looks down upon his work and sees that it is good; the piano tuner who seeks and finds the sound of the daylights; the bookbinder who saves a piece of history; the firemen who saves a life. But don't the satisfactions, like Jude's hunger for knowledge colours more about the person about his task? Perhaps. Nevertheless, there is a common attribute here: meaning to their work well over and beyond the reward of a pay cheque.


Expectancy Theory, Goal Theory, Reactance Theory.


There are many theories of motivation and I thought that it might be useful for you to be familiar with at least some of them.

Expectancy theory states that high effort or motivation is when an employee can see a link between effort, performance and reward. That is to say that there is a positive play-off in exerting effort because it leads to higher performance which then generates higher rewards.

Expectancy theory states that if management is looking for a highly motivated workforce, it should identify goals and values within the workforce and also survey attitudes and perceptions and then provide rewards on an individual basis tied to performance, rather than on a general basis. It is all about motivating the individual because, for instance an overall pay rise would have little impact on motivation.

Goal theory proposes that motivation and performance will be higher when individuals are set specific goals. We used to call this Management by Objectives. Nevertheless, it has been shown that higher motivation and performance are very likely when specific, difficult or ‘stretching’ but agreed goals are set with feedback is built into the equation. Once again, this is a theory which concentrates on motivating the individual rather than a group.

Reactance theory is all about developing practices which will have the most positive effect on behaviour. Again, this applies to both the workplace and normal life. The difficulty with this theory of motivation is walking the rather thin line between exerting influence and exerting control. Motivation can be best understood in terms of individual responses to external stimuli, so employees behaviour is moulded by influences such as management policies and practices and the attitudes of co-workers.

Reactance theory contains four important elements. They are perceived freedom, threat to freedom, reactance, and restoration of freedom. In other words , if someone feels that they are going to lose something or be made to do something in a certain way, they perceive a threat to their 'freedom' (or perceived freedom) , which is a great motivator because it instils action. This is called 'reactance'and the process concludes with the restoration of freedom.


Incentives as Motivators.


It has being generally established that although money is not a great motivator, a lack of it can be one of the biggest demotivators of all.

Performance can be improved through all sorts of things such as encouragement, training and even higher levels of support. Incentive programs can also be used to improve performance, but in specific areas. In other words, as a targeted motivator.

If you are looking for an incentive program to raise overall standards, the bonuses or prizes or whatever should reward everyone who meets their personal target - but at the same time, there should also be special rewards for top performers.

Whenever we talk about incentive schemes we automatically think of sales management, primarily because in an administrative environment it is very difficult to measure both performance, as well as to single out exceptional performance.

The main mistakes made in designing an incentive program as a motivator are the wrong choice of prizes, ambiguous rules and even poor organisation.

Any incentive scheme has to have a specific format. Plus you have to make sure that whatever the prize, that it is a motivator. There is little point in handing someone a bottle of cheap red wine when they do well because, after all, it is only a bottle of cheap red wine.

It should be remembered however, that not too much emphasis should be put on incentive programs because yes, an incentive program will result in short-term increases in performance, but it may also mask underlying issues which could be better attacked rather than through an incentive program. Any sort of incentive to better performance should not be used as a short-term fix.


Motivation Myths.


When you kick a dog, it will move. When you want that dog to move again, what do you do? You kick it again. Would it not be better to give it a reason to move?

Far too many people employ what is known as KITA motivation and they are surprised that long-term, it does not work.

By the same token, I can charge someone's battery and then recharge it and recharge it again. But it is only when that individual has his or her own generator that we can talk about proper motivation. Then they do not need outside stimulation. They want to do it.

Let's look at a few attempts at motivation from the past, specifically in the workplace, which have been proved to be absolutely wrong.

1. It was thought that reducing an individual's time spent at work would be quite motivational and some companies even introduced recreation programs for the staff . The thinking being that those who play together work together. The simple fact is that motivated people seek more hours of work, not fewer.

2. Do increasing wages motivate people? Yes they do, but only until the next wage increase. There comes a point that if you keep increasing people's wages in order to motivate them, it soon becomes something that they expect and if at some stage they do not get their increase, it can be the most massive demotivator.

3. Fringe benefits used to be thought of as a great motivator, but in fact increasing fringe benefits increases people's appetite for them until just like rapidly increasing wages for motivational purposes, they become a very powerful demotivator.

4. The ubiquitous Monday morning meeting where the manager stands up with fine words, usually to the accompaniment of 'death by PowerPoint’, and tries to use this time in order to motivate the staff. Very soon it becomes a habit, then becomes a chore and then it becomes a total demotivator.

5. Threatening people is not a great motivator, but it is still surprising to see many managers still using this technique in the mistaken belief that they will frighten people into being motivated. Remember Capt Bligh on the Bounty? “The floggings will continue until morale improves!' He wasn't a great motivator either!

Motivation is very simple. If you are in a position of responsibility whether professionally, personally or socially, all you have to do is to appreciate people, praise them, be good to them and they will walk over hot coals for you. You do not need books or smart management techniques. You just have to be a decent human being.


Job Enrichment.


When you talk about job enrichment we are reminded of a famous name in the field of motivation that is Frederick Hertzberg. In 1968 he wrote an article entitled 'One more time: how do you motivate employees?'

He borrowed from his earlier work by stating that the greatest motivators for employees are, in descending order achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth. The theory of job enrichment was very simple in that all you need to do as an employer or manager is to modify the work so that it not only contains the motivators but if you can to increase motivators that you know specifically will affect the individual.

What we are all aiming for is enrichment of the activity in order to produce happier people.

Hertzberg recommended not only looking at every job in minute detail, but looking for potential changes in order to make the job more motivating. He then went on to suggest that once a list of potential changes had been established the following principles should be used to review the changes:

Removing controls but retaining accountability, increasing the accountability of the individual, allocating a distinct unit of work to the individual, giving the individual more authority, communicating reports directly to the staff rather than only to management, introducing more difficult tasks and finally, introducing the concept of specialised tasks for individuals in order to develop them into experts in a particular field.

All these principles can be applied both in the workplace as well as in one's home life by getting away from the 'we've always done it this way' syndrome and looking for imaginative solutions to everyday problems which stimulate and motivate the participants.

Self-Motivation Techniques.

If you learn to self-motivate, it is something that you will be carrying around with you forever rather than waiting for an external 'fix'. It is the only type of motivation which you can rely on 100%. It is no longer a case of dreaming about money and fame, and you do not need anyone to try and seduce you into achievement. What you really need is a set of new behaviours and new ways of approaching life. In other words, a behavioural change. 

The drive which you need to achieve needs to be within yourself. That is because, believe it or not, ultimately you are the only one who is interested in your potential and you should make yourself capable of self-motivating in order to achieve without external incentives or even encouragement.

Self-motivation is where the real power lies, and it has more power than any other sort. Contrary to what the books tell you it is not something that you can achieve in a few days, but it is something that you will need to work at.

Self-motivated people are those who will take the path which is trodden by very few others. It is about going into uncharted territories without fear. Developing self-motivation is also such a journey.

The whole subject of self-motivation is vast and what I propose to do is just give you a few tips which will put you on the road to becoming a fully self-motivated and eventually self-actualised individual.

Here are the characteristics which you need to think about if you hope to become highly motivated with a good self-esteem:

1. Balanced lifestyle. Think about the work versus homelife aspects

2. A confident and relaxed self-image

3. The capacity to be properly productive when needed

4. The pride in your achievements and strengths

5. The ability to communicate honestly, expressively and directly

6. Good social relationships and the ability to collaborate

7. A positive sense of values

8. Not afraid of criticism

9. Sometimes introspective - but honestly

10. A generosity of spirit and willingness to support and help others

There are many techniques which can provide you with the shortcuts you need to achieving high self-esteem and become a motivated individual, but unfortunately they are outside the scope of this short section and hopefully we will be able to include an entire lesson on self-motivation in a subsequent lesson.

The next section will provide you with just a few of the techniques you will need.

Affirmations.

Positive thoughts is what this section is all about - or more specifically, it is about you beginning a positive onslaught on yourself during which you tell yourself how good you are, how positive you are, how bright the future is and so on.

At the beginning, you will probably be very self-conscious about looking in the bathroom mirror, kissing it and telling yourself what a great person you are because after all, it’s silly, isn’t it? Yes, it is silly, but it works and is an essential part of your training.

Affirmations are when you pay yourself compliments. You are going to learn how to self-motivate!

Remind yourself and think about all of your life’s achievements. Believe me, if you think hard enough you will find good and positive things that you have achieved. Write them down. Some successful people go as far as keeping a scrapbook of photos, articles, and even holidays and places they have visited when they felt positive and happy. Ask yourself, why do we all enjoy looking at old holiday photographs or videos. They are reminders of happy times. Don’t waste those happy times that you once had. Harness them now. Use them to drive your life forward today in a positive way.

Read about successful people. Enjoy what they have achieved. Don’t necessarily look for tricks and tips – just immerse yourself in their story.

Every morning, look at yourself in that bathroom mirror and say: “I enjoy being optimistic and I am really going to enjoy being a success.”

If there is some music which makes you feel good and/or nostalgic – listen to it regularly. If you have any music which makes you feel positive and makes you want to do things, get into the habit of playing it whenever you can.

Look for the positive in everything – even the mistakes. That positive state of mind needs to become a habit – it needs to become you.

There is one very straightforward ‘technique’ which you should adopt not only to be positive but to appear positive:

SMILE a lot more than you do at the moment. Not only will you look better and younger, you will feel better and you will begin to attract the sort of positive people that you need to surround yourself with.

If you have ever listened to or read a sportsperson telling the interviewer that they ‘visualise’ themselves winning a gold medal for winning a race, they are not inventing it for the sake of the media. Modern athletes are trained in affirmations and they tell themselves that they are going to win because in recent years it has become very apparent how important self-belief is to performance. 

And it will not be very long before your subconscious response to your affirmations delivers the results…… And when you look in the mirror, you will see a completely different person.


Conclusion.


I sincerely hope that this lesson on understanding motivation has been of some help to you, especially as it was designed specifically to help you to improve personally rather than to increase your technical knowledge or your skills. Never an easy task! 


In the final analysis, it all boils down to your ATTITUDE to yourself and to the world around you

 

Motivation is not a magic formula or a ‘system’ and the only surprising thing about it is how recently both science and management have made it a priority subject. However, there is a tendency on occasion to complicate what is in reality a very simple idea which is that by being kind to people, praising them and doing the same to yourself it can be a real life changer with the ability to make any individual function much better, both professionally and personally

     

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